The proper name of this product shall be Blood Grouping The Klamath Lutheran Church is a masonry structure with cathedral ceiling containing approximately sq ft of floor area. This building is currently heated by two duct furnaces and a unit heater all of which are gas fired. An Educational Wing of approximately sq ft was added in This building, containing 2 assembly rooms and a number of classrooms is of uninsulated frame construction, with extensive glass area. A gas-fired boiler supplying finned tube radiators currently heats this wing.
Four specific options for displacing all or part of the heating duty with geothermal were examined. Of the four cases examined, case 3 heating of both the church building and educational wing with effluent from the Klamath Union High School seems to offer the greatest potential and earliest simple payback period. Human microbiota, blood group antigens, and disease.
Far from being just "bugs in our guts," the microbiota interacts with the body in previously unimagined ways. Research into the genome and the microbiome has revealed that the human body and the microbiota have a long-established but only recently recognized symbiotic relationship; homeostatic balance between them regulates body function.
That balance is fragile, easily disturbed, and plays a fundamental role in human health-our very survival depends on the healthy functioning of these microorganisms. Increasing rates of cardiovascular, autoimmune, and inflammatory diseases, as well as epidemics in obesity and diabetes in recent decades are believed to be explained, in part, by unintended effects on the microbiota from vaccinations, poor diets, environmental chemicals, indiscriminate antibiotic use, and "germophobia.
Research into dietary effects on the human gut microbiota led to its classification into three proposed enterotypes, but also revealed the surprising role of blood group antigens in shaping those populations. Blood group antigens have previously been associated with disease risks; their subsequent association with the microbiota may reveal mechanisms that lead to development of nutritional interventions and improved treatment modalities. Further exploration of associations between specific enteric microbes and specific metabolites will foster new dietary interventions, treatment modalities, and genetic therapies, and inevitably, their application in personalized healthcare strategies.
Estimation of nonpaternity in the Mexican population of Nuevo Leon: a validation study with blood group markers. In all, 32 legal fathers were excluded as the possible father based on genetic exclusions at one or more loci combined average exclusion probability of 0. The maximum likelihood estimate of the general nonpaternity rate in the population was 0. We further argue that with the moderately low Implications of these results in the context of genetic-epidemiological studies as well as for detection of true fathers for child-support adjudications are discussed, implying the need to employ a battery of genetic markers possibly DNA-based tests that yield a higher power of exclusion.
We conclude that even though DNA markers are more informative, the probabilistic approach developed here would still be needed to estimate the true rate of nonpaternity in a population or to evaluate the precision of detecting true fathers. Blood donation results in a substantial iron loss and subsequent mobilization from body stores. Chronic iron deficiency is a well-recognized complication of regular blood donation. The present study conducted to compare the level of serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity TIBC and percentage transferrin saturation in different ABO and Rhesus type blood groups among the voluntary blood donors of Bangladesh.
The present prospective study included healthy voluntary donors attending at Department of Blood Transfusion, Dhaka Medical College, Dhaka between the periods of July to Jun From each donor 10mL venous blood sample was taken and divided into heparinized and non-heparinized tubes for determination of hemoglobin Hb , hematocrit Hct , serum iron SI , total iron binding capacity TIBC and serum ferritin by standard laboratory methods. Among the donors Donors with blood group O had lowest haemoglobin, serum iron and transferring saturation levels.
Donors with blood group B had lowest serum ferritin level. An independent samples 't' test showed statistically significant difference in serum ferritin and percentage transferrin saturation between blood group AB and blood group O and in percentage transferrin saturation between blood group B and blood group O. Association of ABO and Rh blood groups with breast cancer. The aim of this study was to determine the association of "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood groups with incidence of breast cancer.
The research papers were selected by using the primary key-terms including "ABO blood type", "Rhesus" blood type and "breast cancer". The research documents in which "ABO" and "Rhesus" blood types and breast cancer was debated were included. After screening, we reviewed 32 papers and finally we selected 25 research papers which met the inclusion criteria and remaining documents were excluded. Blood group "A" has high incidence of breast cancer Blood group "A" has highest and blood group "AB" has least association with breast cancer.
To reduce breast cancer incidence and its burden, preventive and screening programs for breast cancer especially in young women are highly recommended. ABO blood groups have been confirmed to be associated with cardiovascular diseases such as coronary artery disease. Distribution of ABO blood groups was evaluated between the two groups. Univariate regression analysis showed that age, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, A blood type were positively correlated with CAC, and O blood type was inversely associated with CAC.
Multivariate regression analysis showed that A blood type was independently associated with CAC odds ratio: 2. Our data has suggested for the first time that A blood type was an independent risk marker for CAC. Published by Elsevier B. The aim of the study is to investigate the possible associations between the blood groups ABO and Rhesus systems and the presence of keloids in patients with black skin.
The distribution of different ABO blood groups and Rhesus blood groups in both groups cases versus controls was not significantly different. Univariate analysis between each blood group and the presence of keloid does not yield any statistically significant association between blood groups and presence of keloids in the subjects.
The study shows no significant association between blood groups and the presence of keloids in our patients. Further investigation needs to be conducted to elucidate this hypothesis further by conducting multicenter studies of several ethnic groups. Lea blood group antigen on human platelets. One- and two-stage radioligand assays were used to determine if human platelets possess the Lea antigen.
Goat IgG anti-Lea antibody was purified by multiple adsorptions with Le a-b- human red blood cells, followed by affinity chromatography with synthetic Lea substance and labeling with I. Human IgG anti-Lea antibody was used either in a two stage radioassay with I-labeled mouse monoclonal IgG anti-human IgG as the second antibody or, alternatively, purified by Staph protein A chromatography, labeled with I, and used in a one-stage radioassay. Platelets from donors of appropriate red blood cell phenotypes were incubated with the antisera, centrifuged through phthalate esters, and assayed in a gamma scintillation counter.
The clinical significance of these antigens in platelet transfusion remains undefined. This practicum was designed to bridge the gap between strong values held by a Lutheran school and output from learners in the school that reflected these values. Using the "I Can Make a Difference" model, students in grades five through eight worked during weekly enrichment periods for 12 weeks to select and solve real life problems. This quantitative study examines the relationship of philosophical beliefs of administrators of Lutheran schools and the influence of those beliefs on discipline decision-making styles, job satisfaction, and other factors.
The study patterns the survey work from William Perry and other theorists regarding philosophy and ethics. This qualitative case study examined administrators' and teachers' perceptions of personal and student emotional literacy in one Lutheran Church Missouri Synod LCMS school. Students attending LCMS schools were struggling with social and emotional issues prompting behavioral difficulties, while teachers were unprepared for the magnitude of….
ABO blood groups and malaria related clinical outcome. The study was undertaken to correlate the blood groups and clinical presentations in malaria patients and to understand the differential host susceptibility in malaria. From October to September , malaria positive patients' samples were evaluated in this study. Hemoglobin, total leukocyte count, and platelet count of each patient were done on an automated cell counter.
After determining the blood groups , malarial species and the severity of clinical course were correlated. A total of patients were included in the study, of which 63 cases were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and 37 cases were positive for P. The results of the blood groups showed 22 - 'A' group , 42 - 'B' group , 35 - 'O' group and 1 was 'AB' group. The difference in rosetting ability between red blood cells of different 'ABO' blood groups with a diminished rosetting potential in blood group 'O' red blood cells was due to the differential host susceptibility.
Based on literature and the results of this study, the diminished rosetting potential in blood group 'O' red blood cells is suggested as the basis for the differential host susceptibility. Influence of ABO blood group on sports performance.
Full text of "Archaeology of Oregon"
Despite being a recessive trait, the O blood group is the most frequent worldwide among the ABO blood types. Since running performance has been recognized as a major driver of evolutionary advantage in humans, we planned a study to investigate whether the ABO blood group may have an influence on endurance running performance in middle-aged recreational athletes. The athletes participated to a scientific event called "Run for Science" R4S , entailing the completion of a In univariate analysis, running performance was significantly associated with age and weekly training, but not with body mass index.
In multiple linear regression analysis, age and weekly training remained significantly associated with running performance. The ABO blood group status was also found to be independently associated with running time, with O blood type athletes performing better than those with non-O blood groups. Overall, age, weekly training and O blood group type explained The results of our study show that recreational athletes with O blood group have better endurance performance compared to those with non-O blood group types.
This finding may provide additional support to the putative evolutionary advantages of carrying the O blood group. ABO blood groups and psychiatric disorders: a Croatian study. The prevalence of ABO alleles is different in different populations, and many studies have shown a correlation between the occurrences of some diseases and different genotypes of ABO blood groups.
The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a significant association between psychiatric syndromes and ABO blood groups. This case-control study involved psychiatric patients and healthy, unrelated, voluntary blood donors. ABO genotyping on five basic ABO alleles was performed using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis.
The odds ratio showed that psychiatric disorders occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other blood groups. However, no statistically significant difference was found in the distribution of ABO blood groups among patients with different psychiatric diagnoses. Likewise, no correlations were found between ABO blood groups and other characteristics of the psychiatric patients sex, psychiatric heredity, somatic comorbidity, suicidality.
The results of this study support the hypothesis of an association between psychiatric disorders and ABO blood groups. The probability is that psychiatric disorders will occur almost three times more frequently in carriers of AB group compared to other ABO blood groups in the Croatian population. A transcriptome-based examination of blood group expression. Over the last two decades, red cell biologists witnessed a vast expansion of genetic-based information pertaining to blood group antigens and their carrier molecules.
Genetic progress has led to a better comprehension of the associated antigens. To assist with studies concerning the integrated regulation and function of blood groups , transcript levels for each of the 36 associated genes were studied. Profiles using mRNA from directly sampled reticulocytes and cultured primary erythroblasts are summarized in this report. Transcriptome profiles suggest a highly regulated pattern of blood group gene expression during erythroid differentiation and ontogeny.
Approximately one-third of the blood group carrier genes are transcribed in an erythroid-specific fashion. Low-level and indistinct expression was noted for most of the carbohydrate-associated genes. Methods are now being developed to further explore and manipulate expression of the blood group genes at all stages of human erythropoiesis. Quantitative blood group typing using surface plasmon resonance. The accurate and reliable typing of blood groups is essential prior to blood transfusion.
While current blood typing methods are well established, results are subjective and heavily reliant on analysis by trained personnel. Techniques for quantifying blood group antibody-antigen interactions are also very limited. Many biosensing systems rely on surface plasmon resonance SPR detection to quantify biomolecular interactions. While SPR has been widely used for characterizing antibody-antigen interactions, measuring antibody interactions with whole cells is significantly less common. Previous studies utilized SPR for blood group antigen detection, however, showed poor regeneration causing loss of functionality after a single use.
In this study, a fully regenerable, multi-functional platform for quantitative blood group typing via SPR detection is achieved by immobilizing anti-human IgG antibody to the sensor surface, which binds to the Fc region of human IgG antibodies. The surface becomes an interchangeable platform capable of quantifying the blood group interactions between red blood cells RBCs and IgG antibodies.
This facilitates binding to the immobilized monolayer and allows for quantitative blood group detection. ABO blood groups , Rhesus negativity, and primary biliary cirrhosis. The distribution of blood groups and Rhesus negativity in 91 British patients with primary biliary cirrhosis was compared with a sample of registered blood donors.
There were no significant differences from the expected proportions calculated from the control groups. Although the number of cases studied is small the analysis does not confirm previous reports of an excess of A group in the disease. If a genetic basis exists for primary biliary cirrhosis alternative markers must be found.
Cheiloscopy and blood groups : Aid in forensic identification. Every person has certain features that make them radically distinct from others. One such feature is lip prints. Lip prints remain the same throughout life and are uninfluenced by injuries, diseases, or environmental changes. Different individuals have specific blood groups according to the various antigen-antibody reactions in their bloodstream.
To determine the distribution of different patterns of lip prints among subjects having different ABO and Rh blood groups. To determine the correlation between respective characteristics of subjects. In this study, lip prints were obtained from subjects 62 males and 60 females , and associated blood-group matching was performed to determine the predominant lip print type and to determine any correlation between lip print types and blood groups. Tsuchihashi's classification of type I complete vertical grooves , type I' incomplete vertical grooves , type II forking grooves , type III intersecting grooves , type IV reticular grooves , and type V indeterminate grooves was used to compare with the ABO and Rh blood grouping systems.
No correlation was found between lip prints and blood groups. No significant correlation exists between blood group and lip prints. Lip prints play a vital role in identification because they are unique. Federal Register , , , , Services provided under the grant to Lutheran Social Services of North Dakota are within the scope and Correlation between 'H' blood group antigen and Plasmodium falciparum invasion. The ABO blood group system is the most important blood group system in clinical practice. The relationship between Plasmodium falciparum and ABO blood groups has been studied for many years.
This study was undertaken to investigate the abilities of different blood group erythrocytes to support in vitro growth of P. Statistically significant differences were observed on the fourth day among the mean percent parasitemias of 'O', non-'O' 'A' and 'B' and 'O h ' group cultures. The parasitemias of four strains ranged from Blood groups and acute aortic dissection type III. For the best outcomes adequate blood transfusion support is required. Interest in the relationship between blood type and vascular disease has been established. The aim of our study is to evaluate distribution of blood groups among patients with acute aortic type III dissection and to identify any kind of relationship between blood type and patient's survival.
From January to December , patients with acute aortic type III dissection were enrolled at the Clinic of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery in Belgrade, Serbia and retrospectively analyzed. Patients were separated into two groups. The examination group consisted of patients with a lethal outcome, and the control group consisted of patients who survived. Our results indicated no difference between different blood groups and RhD typing with respect to in-hospital mortality of patients with acute aortic dissection type III. Blood pressure, ethnic group , and salt intake in Belize.
A total of individuals were studied in seven villages in Belize, Central America. Generally, they were members of three ethnic groups --Maya, Spanish, and Creole. The systolic and diastolic IV and V blood pressures were recorded using standardised procedure. Significant differences in blood pressure, weight, and obesity were found between ethnic groups in both sexes, Creoles having higher means than the other groups. Significant relationships with blood pressure were found with obesity, age, and number of children. Red blood cell microparticles and blood group antigens: an analysis by flow cytometry.
Background The storage of blood induces the formation of erythrocytes-derived microparticles. Their pathogenic role in blood transfusion is not known so far, especially the risk to trigger alloantibody production in the recipient. This work aims to study the expression of clinically significant blood group antigens on the surface of red blood cells microparticles. Material and methods Red blood cells contained in erythrocyte concentrates were stained with specific antibodies directed against blood group antigens and routinely used in immunohematology practice.
After inducing erythrocytes vesiculation with calcium ionophore, the presence of blood group antigens was analysed by flow cytometry. Discussion We conclude that blood group antigens are localized on erythrocytes-derived microparticles and probably keep their immunogenicity because of their capacity to bind specific antibody. Selective segregation process during vesiculation or their ability to elicit an immune response in vivo has to be tested by further studies. A retrospective cohort study was performed in 1, women who gave birth to a singleton in Talca Regional Hospital, Chile, during We analyzed personal, obstetric, medical data and ABO and Rh blood groups.
GDM was diagnosed in 6. Age and body mass index were significantly associated with GDM. Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center TBTC , and determine any association between blood groups and blood - borne infections between the years of and Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate.
Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program.
Results Overall, donor serum samples were collected in Conclusion Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood -borne infections is relatively low. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center TBTC , and determine any association between blood groups and blood - borne infections between the years of and This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC.
Overall, donor serum samples were collected in Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood -borne infections is relatively low. The MNS blood group system includes more than 40 antigens, and the M, N, S and s antigens are the most significant ones in the system. The antigenic determinants of M and N antigens lie on the top of GPA on the surface of red blood cells, while the antigenic determinants of S and s antigens lie on the top of GPB on the surface of red blood cells. The molecular basis of Miltenberger hybrid glycophorin polymorphism is specifically expounded.
Blood grouping based on PCR methods and agarose gel electrophoresis. The study of erythrocyte antigens continues to be an intense field of research, particularly after the development of molecular testing methods. More than specificities have been described by the International Society for Blood Transfusion as belonging to 33 blood group systems. Furthermore, it is an easy methodology to implement. Bacterial meningitis after epidural catheter placement is rare. We describe a case in which a parturient received labor epidural analgesia for vaginal delivery complicated by dural puncture.
The patient developed postdural puncture headache and underwent 2 separate epidural blood patch procedures. She subsequently developed a headache with fever and focal neurologic deficits. She was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics for presumed meningitis, and she made a full recovery. Blood cultures subsequently grew group B streptococcus. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli blood group A interactions intensify diarrheal severity.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli ETEC infections are highly prevalent in developing countries where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. The molecular basis for these varied presentations, that may involve strain-specific virulence features as well as host factors, have not been elucidated.
We demonstrate that when challenged with ETEC strain H, originally isolated from a case of cholera-like illness, blood group A human volunteers developed severe diarrhea more frequently than individuals from other blood groups. Importantly, we also show that EtpA interacts specifically with glycans expressed on intestinal epithelial cells from blood group A individuals, and that EtpA-mediated bacterial-host interactions accelerate bacterial adhesion and the effective delivery both heat-labile and heat-stable toxins of ETEC. Collectively, these data provide additional insight into the complex molecular basis of severe ETEC diarrheal illness that may inform rational design of vaccines to protect those at highest risk.
Glioblastoma and ABO blood groups : further evidence of an association between the distribution of blood group antigens and brain tumours. Glioblastoma is a highly malignant brain tumour that usually leads to death. Several studies have reported a link between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and a risk of developing specific types of cancer, although no consensus has been reached. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and the incidence of glioblastoma.
The study cohort consisted of glioblastoma patients who were diagnosed at King Abdullah University Hospital, Jordan, between and Three different patient populations made up three control groups and these were selected from among patients at the same institution between and as follows: 3, healthy blood donors, accidental trauma patients admitted to the Departments of Neurosurgery and Orthopaedics, and age- and sex-matched control subjects recruited blindly from the Departments of Paediatrics and Internal Medicine.
There was a significant association between the distribution of ABO blood group antigens and the incidence of glioblastoma. Post hoc residual analysis revealed that individuals with group A had a higher than expected chance of developing glioblastoma, while individuals with group O had a lower than expected chance.
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Furthermore, individuals with group A were found to be at a 1. In the present study, we demonstrate that, in Jordan, individuals with group A have an increased risk of developing glioblastoma, while individuals with group O have a reduced risk. These findings suggest that the distribution of ABO blood group antigens is associated with a risk of brain tumours and may play an important role in their development. However, further clinical and experimental investigations are required to confirm this association.
Individuals with blood group O have a higher bleeding risk than non-O blood groups. We investigated the relationship between blood groups , thrombin generation TG , prothrombin activation and thrombin inactivation. TG was measured in platelet rich PRP and platelet poor plasma PPP of healthy donors and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were calculated. Molecular genotyping of Indian blood group system antigens in Indian blood donors. Haemagglutination has been the gold standard for defining the blood group status. However, these tests depend upon the availability of specific and reliable antisera.
Potent antisera for extended phenotyping are very costly, weakly reacting or available in limited stocks and unavailable for some blood group systems like Indian, Dombrock, Coltan, Diego etc.
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The Indian blood group system consists of two antithetical antigens, In a and In b. This knowledge has allowed the development of molecular methods for genotyping IN alleles. Blood samples were collected from blood donors from Mumbai. Seventeen donors among were heterozygous for In a antigen i. The In a antigen positivity was confirmed serologically, using anti-In a prepared in-house and the genotype-phenotype results were concordant. The frequency of In a 2. This is the first study reporting molecular screening of Indian blood group antigens in Indian population.
The frequency of In a and In b antigens was found to be 2. Red cells of In a positive donors can be used as in-house reagent red cells for screening and identification of corresponding antibodies. Thus, DNA based methods will help in large scale screening of donors to identify rare blood groups , when commercial antisera are unavailable. Blood groups and human groups : collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.
Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups " containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors.
This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators.
Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes red To study the prevalence and distribution of anti-Rh blood group antibodies in Chinese population and its clinical significance. Irregular antibodies were screened and identified by Microcolum Gel Coomb's test.
For those identified as positive anti-Rh samples, monoclonal antibodies anti-D, -C, -c, -E and -e were used to identify the specific antigen and confirm the accuracy of the irregular antibody tests. The titers, Ig-types and 37 Degrees Celsius-reactivity were tested to confirm its clinical significance. For evaluation of the origin of irregular antibodies, histories of pregnancy and transfusion were reviewed.
For the newborns who had positive antibodies, their mothers were tested simultaneously to confirm the origin of the antibodies. Of them, 27 cases had history of pregnancy, 13 had transfusion and 1 had the histories of both. The specificity of the antibody was as follows: 29 with anti-E The prevalence of Rh antibodies is lower in Chinese population as compared with that in White population.
Of all the antibodies, anti-E is most frequently identified and anti-D was declining. Alloimmunization by pregnancy and transfusion is the major cause of Rh antibody production. We herein report a case of a probable B A phenotype in a first time year old male donor. The cell and serum grouping were done using tube technique and also with blood grouping gel card Diaclone, ABD cards for donors, BioRad, Switzerland.
The antisera used were commercial monoclonal IgM type. To check for the weak subgroup of A, cold adsorption and heat elution was performed. There was no agglutination with O cells and the autologous control was also negative. Results for both the eluate and last wash were negative. Hence, the possibility of weak subgroup of A was unlikely. Blood grouping gel card also showed a negative reaction in the anti-A column. There was no agglutination observed with anti-A1 lectin.
Our case highlights the serological characteristics of a B A phenotype. This case emphasizes the vital role of cell and serum grouping in detecting such discrepancies especially in donors which can lead to mislabeling of the blood unit and may be a potential risk for the transfusion recipient if not resolved appropriately. The prognostic value of ABO blood group in cancer patients. The antigens of the ABO system are expressed on red blood cell membranes as well as on the surface of several other normal and pathological cells and tissues.
Following the first clinical observations more than 60 years ago, the role of ABO blood group in cancer biology has been intensely studied by several investigators, and it is now widely recognised that ABO antigens are associated with the risk of developing several types of tumours, namely pancreatic and gastric cancers. However, whether this association also affects the clinical outcome of cancer patients is less certain.
In this narrative review, based on literature data, we discuss the role of ABO blood types as prognostic biomarkers in different types of cancers. The current knowledge of the underlying pathogenic mechanisms of the association is also analysed. Blood groups and human groups : Collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two. The forensic application of hereditary characteristics became possible after the discovery of human blood groups by Karl Landsteiner in The foundation for their use in kinship investigation was laid by Emil von Dungern and Ludwig Hirschfeld in by clarification of the inheritance of the ABO groups.
Up to the middle of the 20th century further red cell membrane systems were discovered. From the s Fritz Schiff and Georg Strassmann fought for the introduction of blood groups into forensic kinship investigation. A new era of hemogenetics was opened from as genetic polymorphisms were described in serum proteins. Starting in there followed the complex HLA system of white blood cells, which from was joined by polymophisms in erythrocyte enzymes. Therefore, from the s, it was possible to clarify the majority of kinship cases with a combination of conventional markers.
From to the conventional markers were gradually replaced by the more effective DNA markers. Simultaneously typing shifted from the phenotype level to the genotype level. The genomic structure of conventional genetic markers could also now be explained. As a reflection of scientific progress the legal situation also changed, particularly in the form of the official guidelines for kinship investigation. It describes the formation of the families and their background. Blood group substances of nonhuman origin ABO blood group and vascular disease: an update.
It has been well known for many years that the ABO blood group has a major influence on hemostasis, through its influence on von Willebrand factor and, consequently, factor VIII plasma levels. Although the relationship between non-O blood type and the risk of venous thromboembolism is nowadays also well established, the association with arterial thrombotic events i.
To elucidate the latter issue, we have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the existing literature. The prevalence of non-O blood group was significantly higher in patients with MI pooled odds ratio [OR]: 1. As part of a larger investigation into the spiritual climate at one Lutheran college, we interviewed Protestant Christian students in order to compare their conceptualizations of spirituality, religion, and faith with biblical notions of those concepts. We found that the students' understandings of those concepts only loosely reflected general….
The purpose of this mixed method study was to discover how diaconal ministers in the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ELCA practice their ministry and describe and understand their role as educators of adults. The theoretical framework of the study was informed by the intersection of critical theory, feminist theory, and liberation…. Barno offered to come to Washington and care for the children. Finally, Akers asked, according to Barno, if Ms. Melzer and Dr. Moffitt sent a report to CPS.
Each petition alleged that the child was abused or neglected, and had no parent or guardian capable of providing adequate care. At about the same time, Akers temporarily placed the children with a foster family. She knew of the events described above, but she had not done any investigation of her own. Feldman testified. The hearing was continued for a week so that Mr. Miles could be evaluated. On December 23, , the court ordered that the children could live with Mr.
Miles, but that Ms. Miles could not also live in the home. The order was implemented on December 29, , when the children returned from vacation with the foster family. On January 5, , the court entered an order allowing Ms. Miles to visit the children under supervision. The court did not allow Ms.
In June , Ms. Miles was evaluated by Dr. Darrow A. Chan, a clinical psychologist. There is also no evidence of tampering with equipment or active falsification of data. Without an intervention, these boys were at great risk for unnecessary chronic medical problems with the possibility of the development of more serious symptoms. It was expressly agreed to and signed by Mr. Miles and his attorney, and Ms. Miles and her attorney. The dependency petition is amended in its entirety, and now states the following allegations: 1. The children were found to be under inappropriate medical care in that they were being treated for medical conditions which did not exist, and over treated for medical conditions which did exist.
Miles, in conjunction with various health care providers, furthered the unfounded medical treatment through reporting a variety of symptoms to various health care professionals, and exhibited a reluctance to decrease medical treatment. Miles, such diagnosis cannot be supported on a more probable than not basis. Miles, at this time, may not fully understand the behavior of both his wife, and of the medical profession, which led to the unfounded and inappropriate medical care of his children. There is concern that the children are at risk because Ms.
Miles may be dependent on the medical care system. Other: Court supervision is necessary to insure that unfounded and inappropriate medical care is not furthered by Ms. The below signed parties agree to the establishment of dependency pursuant to RCW The children will need to be evaluated on an established schedule set up by the lead physician. A homebuilders specialist shall visit the home in Michigan at least once per month to insure that a new cycle of increasing unfounded medical concerns does not begin.
Any new concerns must be evaluated outside the home to insure that no one is influencing the test results. The children shall be enrolled in a public or private school, when they reach the appropriate age, to insure some monitoring of their health and absences. Miles needs to understand the nature of the risks to his children, even though Ms. Fifteen months later, in October , the Miles14 sued the State and Akers for negligent investigation, violation of 42 U. Feldman for negligent diagnosis, negligent infliction of emotional distress, and outrage. In response, Ms. By signing the agreed order of dependency, we were not admitting that we provided inappropriate medical care or overtreated by reporting unfounded medical symptoms.
My only concern at that time was the safety and welfare of my children and placing them back into the family home was the reason I signed the agreed order of dependency. I felt that I had no other choice but to enter into this agreed order. The narrative reads like a Tzotzil rendering of Genesis — 9, which tells the story of the tower of Babel.
Is it a Maya account at all? However, there can be little doubt that the Dominican missionaries must have told their version of this story to the Tzotzils and told it well. The Tower of Babel represented the ultimate claim to temporal and secular power on the part of the Babylonians. They had to be foiled.
God did so, according to the Bible, with his mandate for the confusion of tongues. However, the Tzotzil rendering of this story casts the Spaniards and their language, quite unambiguously, as the Babylonians of the New World. What hath God wrought? Listen to this story. The Great Cement Stairway to Heaven 1. Here is an account of long ago about Ladinos, Of where they came from.
Long ago there were only Ladinos. It happened shortly after he had first molded them from clay. When he had formed the first person,1 Only then did he begin to make the second person. After Our Father Sun had formed them from clay, The clay came out looking just like little dolls. It was then that he began to give to the clay images their souls. This happened at the time when we were being placed on the earth. The first of these images to whom he gave a soul was the first whom he had made.
He began by rubbing and rubbing the molded image, over and over. In this manner, he proceeded to place a soul in the first person. When he had placed a soul in the first person, It was then that he began to place a soul in the second person, the second one he had formed from clay. When Our Father Sun had finished giving these beings their souls, That which had formerly been only clay began to change into people. These were the ones whom Our Father Sun had first wrought from clay. When the two images began to become human, They walked alike.
They worked alike. They talked alike. Indeed, both people spoke only Spanish. Long ago, Spanish was still the only language. Tzotzil, the true language, did not yet exist. The people began to multiply. As they multiplied, they talked alike, in just one language, Spanish. Since they had but one common language, the people talked among themselves and got ideas. Any ideas? So they began to build the cement stairway. As they began to make the great cement stairway, Some prepared the mortar, Some gathered the stones, Some put the stones in place, layer by layer.
The great cement stairway was still not finished when they ran out of stones. Bring more mortar! The stones are all gone! Bring some more! The mortar is all gone! Make some more! Come build it up! The stairway they were building quickly grew upward. Different people came every day to help build the great cement stairway. They all spoke the same language. They understood the same tongue.
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When Our Father Sun changed the languages, the people were right in the middle of their work, Right when they were in the midst of building the great cement stairway. When their language changed, they could no longer understand what they were saying to one another. As they worked, they no longer understood what their companions were asking for. Just as they were in the midst of building the great stairway, they abandoned it, half-finished. This happened because they no longer understood what they were saying to each other. This happened because Our Father worked great changes in language itself.
It happened that he started to oblige us to speak nothing but Tzotzil, the true language, Those of us who are Indians. It is for that reason that we only speak Tzotzil, the true language, Those of us who are Indians.
You see, it happened their souls entered their bodies second in the order of creation, The bodies of those ancient ones, our forefathers. Those of us who were the children of the second person were separated from the others. It was different with the first person. It was this one who was the first to receive a soul. It was this one who was left with the name of Ladino.
Everyone still spoke just Spanish in ancient times. They speak only Castilian. You see, it was the first language that Our Father Sun assigned to the ancestors long ago. It is for this reason that there is but one common language, Spanish. All are thus obliged to learn Spanish. You see, the Ladinos speak only Spanish. That was because Our Father Sun first gave souls to the Ladinos.
When Our Father Sun changed the languages, people began to split up. They scattered; Some went to the lowlands, Others, like ourselves, scattered here and there in the highlands. Those who went off together were those who had the same language. The different groups were divided according to those who had the same language.
That is why we remain separate, very separate, those of us who still speak Tzotzil, the true language, today. In all lands there are those of us who speak our native languages, All over the earth. It is different with the Ladinos; they all speak but one language. They speak Spanish. As for those who are Indians, they speak only their native languages. This is true of all native peoples. So then, when the people split up long ago, The different groups of people went separately to find land to build their houses.
So it was that the Ladinos went separately to look for land where they could settle. So it was that they found their homelands. There they began to build their houses. There they multiplied. When they had multiplied, it seems to me that the Ladinos began to reflect upon who they were and what they should do. Now, then, soon thereafter, the Spaniards began to harass the native people. They began to oblige them to do forced labor. When the Indians worked, they were not given rest periods when they grew tired. Although they were thirsty, they did not permit them to drink water.
Only when their work time was over could they rest from their labor. And if they chanced to fall asleep during their assigned work time, they were sure to receive a sound beating. This was their fate if the Indian workers should fall asleep. This was what happened to them in the daily round of their labor. The Spaniards watched over them and tormented them a lot while they were working. There were no churches. Instead, what really happened was that they did nothing more than brand them, just like horses. That was how the Spaniards of long ago humiliated and mistreated the Indians.
Soon, Our Father Sun felt that there had been enough of this. When Our Father Sun felt that there had been enough of this, the warfare began: The Spaniards began to make war with the Indians. It was they who made war. Indeed, it was a war that lasted for perhaps four years. It was they, the Spaniards, who made war. It was hard to solve these problems. The one who managed to do so was one who suffered through the fighting and triumphed.
It was Miguel Hidalgo who prevailed and caused peace to come. He began to show them how to baptize us in the church. He began to show us how to pray to our Father Sun. He began to tell us what we should say in prayers. He began to show us how to work. He began to show us how to read and write. He began to show us everything.
It was Miguel Hidalgo who accomplished these good works: It was he who settled the conflict a long time ago. It was he who left the problems well solved. It was he who hunted and chased the Spaniards back to their own ancestral homeland where they really belonged. It was he who forced them to return to Spain, as their country is called. That is why they celebrate his fiesta every year on the 16th of September. That is when Don Miguel Hidalgo was shot to death.
You see, he left the earth in good condition long ago. All of these constitute clearly identifiable and easily understandable strands of historical memory that enter into the composition of the narrative. Other themes, however, do not lie so close to the surface and are not so easy to comprehend. In particular, although it is never stated here for it belongs to other accounts of Chamula history , a fundamentally Maya vision of cyclical time and moral evolution informs this entire narrative. I refer to the startling placement of Ladinos and Indians, Spanish and Tzotzil, in precisely the opposite chronological order from that which we assume to be common knowledge.
And that no one in the New World had heard of Spanish until it was violently foisted upon Amerindians as a colonial language? The Tzotzil Maya world was and is different from our own in terms of the rhythm of historical process. Ours has a dominant linear, progressive theme, with occasional cyclical moments that startle us. For example, the press reminding us of Nazi and Allied parallels to what is happening and not happening in Bosnia.
The Maya world, in contrast, is keyed to a basically cyclical vision of historical process, with a secondary progressive, linear theme; the structure of current events inevitably recapitulates the pattern of the past to provide the opportunity to correct past mistakes. Cyclical time reckoning thus allows for, even invites, human progress if it is understood that old structural grids regulate, condition, and limit this progress. The narrative text performs this historical surgery quite effectively. Spaniards are banished to the very distant past, a chronological place that renders them morally inferior to, and prior to, Indians in the order of creation.
Maya-derived four-part cyclical time does not posit a mere repetition of former time periods. In this sense, present-day Chamula Tzotzils believe themselves to be at the cutting edge, the frontier, as it were, of moral progress. Ladino culture, therefore, figures as a part of their own ancestral lineage, in particular a primitive phase of it. They shared, in times past, the moral weaknesses of their present adversaries.
Ladinos and, indeed all white Europeans figure not exactly as ethnic others, but as depraved, primitive versions of themselves. The theme of relegating morally inferior beings to their own ancestral past rings as a powerful leitmotif to virtually all of Chamula cosmological and historical reckoning, including the ritual representation of these ideas cf. This ritual constitutes a great historical drama of the four creations of human experience; virtually all of the barbarous behavior and immoral beings, real and imagined, who have crossed their paths over the ages figure as motifs in this festival.
These events and beings include the Spanish conquest, Spanish soldiers, Mexican soldiers, Guatemalan soldiers, transvestite campfollowers, monkeys, demons, Ladinos, and European tourists. All of these motifs are placed in their own journey through the trials of moral progress, and they themselves play these parts and reenact these events, which are, for them, morally reprehensible. They triumph over this immoral landscape of the past in the climax of the ritual, which consists of purging these immoral aspects of their lineage in a ritual race through a path of burning thatch grass on the fourth day of the festival.
This path of fire represents the solar orbit; in it and through it, the Chamula actors purge the negative aspects of their past and emerge purified, exonerated, and changed from the depravity of their own past. They ritually create a new present in which they are the victors and their adversaries who also reside within their own genealogy and consciousness as a people are vanquished. Language figures prominently in the symbolic content of the ritual I have just described.
The monkey characters and other immoral beings speak Spanish, in a manner that can only be described as farcical mockery. It is precisely this theme of foreign military invasion of Chamula that makes up the nonstop ritual activity of the three-and-a-half days that precede the firewalk. Involved here are not only Spanish soldiers and the theme of the Conquest, but also Guatemalan and Mexican soldiers, specifically named, who were leaders in wars of the nineteenth century.
All of these adversaries spoke Spanish, and their human and moral qualities were dubious at best. For example, the common Norway rat—predator, scavenger, and bad citizen par excellence—is known in modern Tzotzil as karansa, named after Venustiano Carranza, Revolutionary hero and president of Mexico. Furthermore, one of their own i. Thus, Ladinos are not, as an ethnic category, relegated to unredeemable evil. They clearly have in their own genealogy leaders who are capable of acting on behalf of all Mexicans, Ladinos and Indians. It is surely this same logic that accounts for the presence of white gods and saints, including Our Lord Sun Christ himself, as redeeming, compassionate, creative beings in Chamula historical reckoning.
Indeed, in deepest antiquity, the creative force of life itself is attributed to deities with shining, white, radiant faces. In conclusion, therefore, Chamula Tzotzils and perhaps also all Indian people in Chiapas recognize that their own language and ethnicity share important historical experiences with Ladinos. Ladinos thus have the opportunity not only to become moral beings but also to recognize that they, the Ladinos, share a past with Indians. Perhaps there is an opening for dialogue here. The emphasis on the placement of the soul Tz.
It is responsible for the human capacity for speech and language, among other things. The other two souls are the junior and senior aspects of the animal soul companion see Gossen It is also the last spiritual attribute to depart from the body at death. The placement of this tower in the cosmos was unclear to me as we translated this text. Figure 2. The labels on the drawing were placed by the narrator in Tzotzil. These are identified with numbers, which correspond with the translations in the caption.
Otherwise, the drawing is exactly as it appeared in my original working text. This series of emotional phrases verses 17—20 serves to emphasize that all did indeed speak a single language and were thus capable of communicating and working together. The logic of this arrangement—Ladinos first, Indians second, in order of language acquisition—is consonant with the Chamula view that saints, who are the common ancestors of all people, are Ladinos.
Like saints, Ladinos have greater power than Indians in most spheres of contemporary life. It comes from castellano, which refers to Castilian, or the standard Spanish language. Thus, ethnic and linguistic identity are explicitly tied together in Chamula thinking. For several decades, it has been the goal of Mexican Indian primary education to teach Spanish to Indian children, thereby facilitating their participation in Mexican national culture. Teaching of literacy in Indian languages has never been a specific goal of Indian education in modern Mexico. Translations of captions: 1. A mountain with forest and stones.
The surface of the earth. The earth itself. The underworld. There are thirteen steps or levels above and below the surface of the earth. The stairway. Father Miguel Hidalgo is also acknowledged by Mexican written history as being the father of Mexican Independence. Down with bad government! Death to the Spaniards! It may be of some importance to Chamula historical reckonings though it is not mentioned in this Chamula text that Miguel Hidalgo was a parish priest who was close to poor village people.
He felt a special affinity for mestizos and Indians and in many ways, both theological and intellectual, distanced himself from the Spanish criollo establishment. Among other attributes, he learned and used in his parish ministry a number of Indian languages. These aspects of his background, according to fact and legend as recorded in Mexican school textbooks and history books, contributed to his sensitivity to the problems of the poor and oppressed in colonial Mexico.
Condemned to death as a subversive, he faced a firing squad on July 31, Gossen, Gary H. Rowley, Mass. Edmonson, ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, 64— Gossen, ed. Lomnitz-Adler, Claudio. Modiano, Nancy. Indian Education in the Chiapas Highlands. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Tedlock, Dennis. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco. Leed How is a collective identity generated and preserved in the vicissitudes of population dispersal and decimation?
The myth cycle of Unurato answers this question, placing the figure of the white man in a native context of related identities. Language is an important source of social identity for speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages, as it marks membership in a major descent group. Relatedly, brotherhood is traditionally expressed and demonstrated through common language. Yet they continued to identify themselves as one descent group, putatively related through a founding ancestor. It narrates a past, a present, and a future held in suspension. Early contacts opened channels of outmigration and recruited native labor.
One chronicler estimated that, in the ten years between and , twenty thousand Indians from the Upper Rio Negro and its tributaries were enslaved Szentmartonyi, trans, in Wright The continued presence of Spanish militia in the nearby Orinoco and Upper Rio Negro valleys further inspired the Portuguese to fortify their positions, and in the following decade a number of military outposts were built. During the especially brutal period between and , the native population of the Rio Negro was ravaged, enslaved, and dispersed by such recruiting campaigns.
By the indigenous population of the Rio Negro was dramatically reduced Lopes de Sousa , From on, rubber surpassed all other Rio Negro forest products, monopolizing all extractive labor for the next 90 years. Some became itinerant workers, alternating between temporary residence in the rubber camps and home villages. Many others never returned. The rubber years brought with them several forms of enforced labor.
The first practice was to retain laborers by manipulating them into an indebtedness from which they could not be freed. A second widespread practice was the illegal capture of Indians to work in the more undesirable flooded or malarial rubber collection areas. Rubber continued to be the principal export from the Rio Negro Valley until No factor more insidiously deranged native identities than the forcible resettlement of Indians to centers where they were schooled in Portuguese language and culture, trained and encouraged in techniques of intensive agriculture, policed, and generally educated in the ways of the whites.
The government provided incentives to Indians who would speak Portuguese and take Portuguese surnames Burns , It offered several strategic advantages to administrators, missionaries, and traders. Missionaries and priests could take advantage of this preexisting sacrality of place, overlaying one symbolic system with another. Sibs of diverse language groups were moved to inhabit the same settlement. Yet they continue to identify themselves as one exogamous descent group, putatively related through a founding ancestor.
The loss of an identifying language is a crucial factor in the reading of the myth of Unurato. For Eastern Tukanoans, it is language that marks group affiliation and identity. For speakers of Eastern Tukanoan languages, language maintains distinctions. This last group is considered to be in-laws-of-in-laws. Within this tripartite system, the universe of kin and affines is infinitely expandable. Now that mother and father speak the same language, an essential distinction has been obscured.
Members of each language group conceptualize their relation to one another by virtue of the founding ancestor. The names and ranks of the missing groups are remembered and kept alive through sib litanies and legends recounting their demise. In part 2 the hero emigrates downriver, out of the native area, and into a city where he is shot by a white man.
Text Translation and Organization The text presented here was told by C. Some detail and repetition have been eliminated. Every day when the sun was high he would swim downriver from Loiro, above S. There he would go into a passageway—it was a kind of corridor for him, for us it was a stream. He would arrive at the edge of the river, and there transform himself. He was our grandfather. Unurato is our oldest and most cherished brother. He will come back to us; we are waiting for him.
It happened this way. She was struck with his startling beauty and his simmering gold ear ornaments. Being bewitched, she could think of nothing else. So he lived this way, having contact with her, each time returning to his underwater house as an enchanted snake. This went on every day. Her husband [Iapo] became distrustful. He put a companion of his, a bird, in a termite nest high in a tree. Then he hid and waited with a blowgun and poisoned darts. When it was nearly mid-day, the woman was returning from the garden, and, as was her custom, she carried the calabash to the river.
When he got to the edge, he changed into a human being. He lay with her; and just as he was at that moment, as he lay on top of her, the husband blew into his blowgun and sent flying a poison dart which hit the snake in the buttocks. The snake felt almost nothing: he thought it was a horsefly!
When a third dart hit him, the termites on which the woodpecker7 was feeding fell and landed on the woman. She looked up, and there she saw her husband. Terrified, she shook her lover to tell him the husband was watching them. But it was too late. Our grandfather, the snake, had been poisoned. As he fell into the water he changed into a snake and went rolling downriver. There is an island called Tununi Nuku, and he rolled there.
He went rolling until he arrived at Numiani Tuku and there he surfaced. He floated one day, then two days. On the second day, while the wife was making manioc flour, the husband went there to fish. He caught many small fishes. Then, he cut off the penis of the snake. He mixed the penis into one of the bundles and took them home. When he arrived home, he gave the bundles to his wife to roast. They ate together: he ate his bundle and she ate hers.
When he finished eating, he picked up his flute, lay in his hammock and played. She ended up eating that which she most loved. She dipped it and drank many times. A kind of fish, like a snake, came out of her mouth. She returned home, thinking that the penis had left her body. I will tell only a part of how our Unurato, our beloved oldest brother, reappeared and is here today. Well, the husband left the woman. He went away and she remained here. She was pregnant. When she was about to give birth, she went to a stream above S.
Luis, looking for shrimp to eat. In the leaf debris in the water, she found a little fruit—bacaba—which she wanted to eat. You cannot speak as a human. But, in truth, he had the spirit of a human. I will get you [the fruit]. He climbed very high until he was able to reach the fruit. She was frightened: he was a human child but he was also a snake. When she saw the snake, the mother was frightened we know well that he was really a man. From there she set out paddling home. Our grandfather, high in the tree, saw her leaving when a beam of light—a reflection—hit her paddle.
He shouted to her. He was a spirit. He flew to the house and lay on top. It was really a hill of earth, but for them a house called Ditabua in Wituriro. She hid in a large ceramic beer vessel as he remained on top of the house shouting. When she was thrown out by her family, she threw herself into the water and transformed into the fish pirarara. Part 2 Unurato entered the water and there he grew very big. First he went to the Rio Negro, then to the Amazon. In the Amazon he found fishes even bigger than he. So he went to Manaus.
He arrived in Manaus at night. As he came on land he transformed into his human form and spent the night drinking and dancing. At dawn he returned to the water and assumed his snake form. After some time he went to one of the whites with whom he was drinking and asked him to meet him at midnight on a beach. He was to throw the egg at Unurato.
The white went to the river edge and waited. Suddenly the waters rose and Unurato appeared as an enormous snake. In fear, the white shot him with the bullet instead of throwing the egg. With the blow, his snake skin fell into the water and his human body remained on the beach. The blow destroyed his supernatural qualities. He remained a simple man, on the beach, blinded in one eye. He began to live as any man. We are his descendants. Part 3 Unurato went to Brasilia and there he worked constructing large buildings. And he moved among many people. Last year, the waters rose very high.
That was Unurato coming back. He swam upriver.
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He was a gigantic submarine, but since he is a supernatural snake he passed the rapids. The submarine is here, across from Loiro. It appears at midnight. It is so full of goods, it is impossible to count the number of boxes on that ship.
The ship has electric lights. With machines the snake-beings Wai Masa are building an enormous city under the river. You can hear the noise of these submerged machines when you go near there. Now we are few, but he will give us back our prosperity, and our numbers. Discussion In the myth cycle presented here, the river is the primary metonymy. The myth is centered not upon place or wit, but upon a limen, a term that simultaneously signifies a boundary and path, a limit and a corridor.
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It is significant that the myth is centered upon the river, the limen, as much a channel of connectivities as it is a boundary between culture and nature, man and animal, the known and the possible. It is at the boundary between water and land, the river-bank, that all of the primary transformations in the myth take place. Here Dia Pino couples with the wife of lapo, is shot, killed, dismembered, and eaten. Across this boundary are projected the expectations expressed in the last section of the myth, a world of potential, impregnating and transforming the Ancestral Anaconda by means of contact with an industrial world.
Exchange of women, a primary medium of Tukanoan relationship, is the initial metaphor of connection here. In Tukanoan society, if not universally, the relations between men are mediated through women and through the exchange of women. Thus, in principle, in-law status domesticates or transforms a potentially hostile relationship into a relationship of mutuality. The whiteman comes without women. His means of building a boundary society is by the absorption of Indian women as concubines, slaves, and maids.
As wife-seizer, rather than wife-exchanger, the white is the one outsider who does not reciprocate in traditional terms, for whom sexuality is a matter of consumption rather than a medium of enduring relations Where paternity is the basis for group affiliation and self-identity, as it is for the Eastern Tukanoans, illicit paternity by a white man or other outsider amounts to a theft of future generations. Symmetrical events in parts 1 and 2 of the cycle are the structural axes upon which the story turns.